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JESSICA MCLEAN 代寫HUMAN GEOGRAPHY

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  • 19/03/2013
    1
     
     
    ENVG340 LECTURE 8 
    20 MARCH
    Relational thinking and power 
    1
    Lecture overview
    ? AIMS
    ? To explore some conceptual understandings of power
     
    ? To think about what these understandings might mean in
    terms of working towards achieving ecological and social
    justice
    2
    Outline
    1. Thinking about how we think about power
    ? Categorical power
    ? Power as relational
     
    2. Why does it matter how we think about power?
    ? Power as a key issue in resource management settings 
    3
    Thinking about how we think about power
     
    ? How do YOU understand power?
    4
    Foucault and Chomsky discuss power.   19/03/2013
    2
    Power in what sense?
    5
    ? Liberal theory (eg Mill)
    ? Power linked with authority or domination
    ? The State is ideally a neutral umpire, exercising legitimate
    power over its subject for everyone’s best interest
    ? Marxist
    ? State not potentially neutral – controlled by ruling class
    ? Dominate, extract surplus from the working class in the form
    of profit
    ? Both these consider power as resting on economic or
    political base.
     
    Feminist critiques of power
    6
    ? Power in everyday life
    ? Marxist feminists
    ? Ideological apparatus of the
    state
    ? Liberal feminists
    ? Women’s confinement to the
    private sphere problematic
    ? Psychoanalytic  feminists
    ? Ideology of masculinity and
    femininity constructs men
    and women as patriarchal
    subjects in capitalist society
    ‘Feminist Ryan Gosling’
    Thinking about how we think about power
    ? Power as a categorical construction
    ? Those with power (and without power) categorically set in
    time and place
     
    ? Power as a relational concept
    ? Power as constitutive of continually practiced social
    relations
    7
    Dominant understandings : power as a
    categorical construction
    ? Power as a finite resource
    ? Power is possessed, held or stored as a resource capacity
     
    ? Power as domination (instrumental power)
    ? Power ultimately constraining and limiting 
    ? A zero-sum game – empower X, disempower Y
     
    ? Domination/Resistance 
    ? Binary notion : either/or
    ? Powerful actors exercise power ‘over’ less powerful actors
    ? Centre/periphery as a spatial metaphor
     
    8 19/03/2013
    3
    Understandings of power : moving
    beyond categorical construction
    ? Power as enabling (associational power - Arendt)
    ? Power ‘to’ or power ‘with’
    ? Power being established through associational ties and as
    having positive, empowering effects
     
    ? Power as primarily productive; a capillary model of
    power – as everywhere, in every social interaction
    (Foucault)
     
    ? Focus of attention is often on either instrumental or
    associational power
    9
    Understandings of power : moving beyond
    categorical construction
    ? Power ‘over’: the ability of the powerful to affect the
    actions and thought of the powerless
     
    ? Power ‘to’ : important for the capacity to act; to
    exercise agency, and realise the potential of rights,
    citizenship or voice
     
    ? Power ‘with’: the synergy which can emerge through
    partnership and collaboration with others, or through
    processes of collective action 
    10
    Source: Gaventa (2005)
    Thinking about power relationally
     
    ? Power as constructed through patterns of social
    relations
    ? Power as instrumental AND associational
    ? Recognising the relationship between power and
    space 
    ? the ‘spatiality of power’
     
     
     
    11
    Source: Allen (2003)
    John Allen’s TOPOLOGY of power
     
    ? Identifies diverse ‘modes’ of power not a generalised
    sweep of relations
    ? ‘the subtle distinctions of power’
     
    ? INSTRUMENTAL MODES  ASSOCIATIONAL MODES
     
    ? Domination      Persuasion
    ? Authority      Negotiation
    ? Inducement
    ? Coercion
    ? Manipulation
     
     
     
     
     
     
    12 19/03/2013
    4
    John Allen’s TOPOLOGY of power
     
    ? Sees power as having fluid properties, not a fixed
    resource possessed by any particular actor
     
    ? Sees power as relational – as mediated through a
    series of relationships in both space and time
    ? Various relational arrangements 
    ? Different actors ‘mark their presence through interaction in all
    kinds of powerful and not so powerful ways’. 
    ? ‘Sensitive to the diverse geographies of proximity and reach’
     
     
     
     
    13
    John Allen’s TOPOLOGY of power
    ‘… the wider the dispersal of power, the more
    opportunity there is at the many points of
    intersection with other bodies for agents to mobilise
    other resources, other sets of interests, and to shift
    the line of discretionary judgement in unanticipated
    and unforseen ways, or even to break with it’
     
    14
    What are the implications of understanding
    power relationally?
    ? Mediated relationships of power make a difference
    to the way power is exercised and experienced in
    its different modes
     
    ? Power is contingent, and hence can materialise in
    unforseen ways
     
    15
    What are the implications of understanding
    power relationally?
    ? Opportunities and openings arise in mediated
    relationships of power, for all actors
     
    ‘the mediated relationships of power multiply the possibilities
    for political intervention at different moments and
    institutional settings.’
     
    ‘spaces of political engagement open up precisely because
    of the contingent and relational manner in which power, in
    its different modes and spatial arrangements, is exercised’
     
    16 19/03/2013
    5
     
    What does it matter how we think about
    power
    ? Power as a categorical construction
    ? Hard to challenge - disempowering
     
    ? Power as a relational concept
    ? Multiple avenues of challenge – empowering
     
    17
    Global
    Militarism
    Global
    Environmental
    Degradation
    Widespread
    Repression
    Global
    Poverty
    Global
    Militarism
    Global
    Environmental
    Degradation
    Widespread
    Repression
    Global
    Poverty
    A SINGULAR
    GLOBAL CRISIS
    OVERLAPPING
    LOCAL AND
    REGIONAL CRISES
    Filtered through the strategies and structures of
    the powerful nation states and international
    agencies, these issues become constituted as …
     From one standpoint we see Top-Down calls
    for a ‘‘New World Order” with power &
    authority centralized to address the ‘Global
    Crisis’.
    Alternatively, we see Bottom-Up calls for a new
    world order with power and authority
    decentralized to address inter-acting crises
    Filtered through the diverse local, and regional
    groups these issues reflect and construct diverse
    (even contradictory) visions of alternative
    futures constituted as ...
    NEW WORLD ORDER
    ?WAR ON TERROR
    ?ECONOMIC CRISIS
    18
    What does it matter how we think about
    power?
    ? How we think about power is political. It establishes a
    political position
     
    ‘how we think about power may serve to reproduce and
    reinforce power structures and relations, or alternatively it
    may challenge and subvert them. It may contribute to their
    continued functioning, or it may unmask their principles of
    operation, whose effectiveness is increased by their being
    hidden from view. To the extent that this is so, conceptual
    and methodological questions [about power] are inescapably
    political …’ (Lukes 2005, p. 63). 
     
    19
    ? Just as with scale, in this unit we encourage you to
    consciously think about power, how it is
    constructed and exercised, how you construct and
    exercise it!
     
    ? Power ‘within’ or power ‘over oneself’: gaining the
    sense of self-identity, confidence and awareness
    that is a pre-condition for action
     
    What does it matter how we think about
    power?
    20 19/03/2013
    6
    Main Points
    ? Categorical thinking with respect to power can be seen in
    the emphasis given to power as a resource, power as
    domination, and the domination/resistance dichotomy
     
    ? Relational thinking about power leads us to recognise the
    possibilities for transforming resource management
    systems
     
    ? Just like scale, power is socially constructed and there is a
    politics associated with its construction
     
    ? Recognising and engaging with this politics can open up
    multiple avenues of challenge to global crises and lend
    support for alternative futures
    21
    References & further reading
      
      Allen, J. (2003) Lost geographies of power. Malden, MA: Blackwell
    Publications.
     
      Gaventa, J. (2006) Finding the spaces for change: A power analysis,
    IDS Bulletin, 37 (6) : 23-33
     
      Lukes, S. (2005) Power: A Radical View, 2nd expanded edition.
    London: Macmillan.
     
        
    22

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