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代寫hall of mirrors

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    A hall of mirrors
    The self sets itself within a hall of mirrors; it mistakes its reflection
    for the world, sees its own reflections endlessly, talks endlessly to
    itself, and, not surprisingly, finds continual verification of itself
    and its world view (Rose 1999: 177)
     
    “This is monologue masquerading as conversation, masturbation posing
    as productive interaction; it is a narcissism so profound that it purports
    to provide a universal knowledge when in fact its violent erasures are
    universalizing its own singular and powerful isolation” (Rose 1999: 177)
     2
    Eurocentric colonising knowledges and a : a useful tool 
    Assertion and imposition  
    of Eurocentric knowledges  
    justified
    Assumption that 
    Eurocentric knowledges 
    are universal legitimated
    Eurocentric knowledges  
    assumed to be universal
    Multiple  
    knowledges
    silenced, ignored, 
    devalued and undermined
    Eurocentric
    knowledges
    Eurocentric knowledges in the hall of mirrors: 
    reflections of Eurocentric knowledges
    A hall of mirrors
    Eurocentrism = 
    “an attitude that unthinkingly
    and unproblematically
    places ‘Europe’ at the centre
    of human inquiry, social
    analysis and political
    practice” (Dictionary of
    Human Geography, 240)
     
    It reduces colonised peoples to
    peoples without histories and
    geographies (Wolf 1982)
    Management in the Hall of Mirrors?
    What does the ‘manage’ in  management
    mean?
     
     
     
    • Binaries and assumptions:
    ? separation 
    ? superiority 
    ? inevitable linear movement of progress
    • Intervention, control, domination
    • Resources 3
    Progress in the hall of mirrors
    • The thread linking colonial and early federal periods is
    readily traced in a stiffening resolve to subdue, harness
    and transform the natural environment, and in the
    requisite consolidations of technocratic expertise.
    Australia's water managers flew the flag of modernity
    with special gusto, and the engineering profession
    provided the most persistent and enthusiastic champions
    (Powell 2000: 55).
    Engineering in the hall of mirrors
    • I now come to the consideration of that part of the question on which
    everything may be said to depend, namely, as to the best means of
    improving the channel of the river itself at those places where it is
    now so contracted and tortuous as to be unable to carry off the
    water with sufficient rapidity to prevent its overflowing its banks
    (Moriarty 1869: 29) 
     
    • Rivers are constantly in a state of change. It is necessary to
    maintain and protect rivers by encouraging their desirable
    tendencies and resisting those changes which will have
    adverse effects on the environment, including man and his
    activities (Dave Rankin, Water Resources Engineer and Trustee,
    Hunter Valley Conservation Trust during the 1960s and 1970s, cited
    in Raine and Gardiner 1995: 21). 
     
    A competition with nature
      
      The 1955 flood altered the whole concept [of river
    management]… They entered a competition with
    nature, they put a wall up telling the water to turn
    (Dairy Farmer, Denman, Upper Hunter Valley).
    Assertion and imposition  
    of management concepts
    and practices justified
    Assumption that 
    management  is
    universal  legitimated
    Management assumed   
    to be universal
    Multiple  
    knowledges
    silenced, ignored, 
    devalued and undermined
    Management
    Management in the hall of mirrors 
     4
    Glimpses into multiple knowledges:
    shattering mirrors
    • celebrating difference, exploding
    binaries to realise how ‘uncommon’
    ‘common’ sense can be
    • situated Indigenous and local
    knowledges to unsettle assumptions
    of universality
    Unsettling glimpses …
    ... we might note that for many people non-intervention is
    frequently a virtue. The positive valuation of non-
    intervention rests on several assumptions:
    -that the results of actions cannot be accurately predicted …
    -that information from complex systems is never complete ...
    -that the system which is producing our current problems is
    not the system we ought reasonably to rely on to get us out
    of it.
    These point a long way to explaining why, in Australia,
    European land use strategies are perceived by Aboriginal
    people to be founded in arrogance (D Rose 1993:115-6)
    Aboriginal Australia 
     
    Many people expressed a sense of loss
    that the [locally extinct ‘native’] animals
    were no longer around but there was also
    a pervading sense of passive acceptance
    about what had happened. Rather than
    question why the animals had gone and
    then attempt to act to bring them back,
    Aboriginal people accept what they
    perceive as a change in circumstances
    which is beyond their control (B Rose
    1995:95)
    Aboriginal, Central Australia 
     
    … many Inuit do not believe that
    “wildlife” can be “harvested”,
    “managed” or “conserved” as
    “stocks” or “populations”. Many
    of these concepts have no basis
    in Inuit reality (Stevenson,
    1996)
     
    Inuit, Canada  5
    The engineer’s dilemma … 
      The whole subject is one of extreme difficulty; no
    problem in engineering can perhaps be more so. Once
    we interfere with the existing order of things, we call
    into operation forces and causes, the effects and
    consequences of which may be so varied, and at first
    sight apparently contradictory, as to be difficult of
    explanation, and impossible of certain prediction.
    (Moriarty 1869: 32).
     
     
    Ecological uncertainty
      Ensure that management strategies
    recognise explicitly that they are working
    from an imperfect knowledge base, with
    relatively poor understanding of
    ecosystem functioning and that
    heterogenous nature is in a continual
    state of flux (Rogers 2003).
     
    What does the wild in wildlife mean?
    Binaries  Assumptions
       culture?nature  - separation                                
        human?animal  - reason
     
        wild?tame/domestic   - development, progress
        feral?native  
        wildlife?food

    Unsettling glimpses
    Belief in separation:
    culture?nature
    human?animal
    Judeo-Christian  traditions about the creation process
    Western Scientific method
    • objective world
    • need to understand and control 
    • naming and categorising  
    In this model, scientific theory has separated animals into their own category and
    classified and named them. 
     
     ‘And the LORD God formed out of the earth all the wild beasts and all the birds of the
    sky, and brought them to the man to see what he would call them ...’ Genesis 2:19 (Plaut
    et al. 1981:30). 6
    Wildlife management discourses in Australia:
    wildlife and animals defined and categorised
    (where do humans fit?)
    In section 5 of the NSW National Parks and Wildlife
    Act 1974, animals are defined in scientific categorical
    terms:
     
    ... animal means any animal, whether vertebrate or
    invertebrate, and at whatever stage of
    development, but does not include fish within the
    meaning of the Fisheries Management Act 1994
    other than amphibians or aquatic or amphibious
    mammals or aquatic or amphibious reptiles.
     
    CCAs and co-management negotiations in Canada:  
    Indigenous groups have had to negotiate on
    Eurocentric terms of reference
    For example, in regard to the Dene/Metis Harvesting
    Agreement, Asch (1989:211-212, my emphasis)
    argues that:
     
    They [the Dene and Metis] have obtained some
    concessions, but in the process have had to accept
    working within a paradigm that is external to their
    ideology ... the aboriginal parties have had to give
    ground on fundamental points.  In particular they
    have had to accept that what they hunt is ‘wildlife’. 
    They have therefore conceded that the animals
    they harvest belong to a Euro-Canadian category
    rather than to one of their own making.
    Assertion and imposition  
    of management concepts
    and practices justified
    Assumption that 
    management  is
    universal  legitimated
    Management assumed   
    to be universal
    Multiple  
    knowledges
    silenced, ignored, 
    devalued and undermined
    Management
    Wildlife in the hall of mirrors 
     
    Wildlife
    Unsettling glimpses
    Christie (1992:5), a linguist working in northern
    Australia, illustrates some of the unsettling aspects
    of recognising multiple knowledges:
    I failed as I struggled mentally to arrange all
    Yolngu matha names into a hierarchy.  I
    assumed, for example, that the distinction
    between ‘plant’ and ‘animal’ is a ‘natural’ one,
    an ontological distinction, a reality quite
    independent of human attempts to make sense
    of the world.  But there is no Yolngu Matha
    word for either ‘plant’ or ‘animal’. 7
    Hove and Trojanow (1996:18) describe the
    intimate relationship between humans, nature,
    animals, insects and plants in Zimbabwe:
    Zimbabweans, like other Africans, developed
    their individual and social philosophy from
    the relationship of the human body to other
    bodies, to nature.   To be alive is to be alive
    with others, including animals, insects and
    plants.
    The personages in this book will talk of
    spirituality in a different way. 
    Spirituality is not the monopoly of human
    beings (Hove and Trojanow, 1996:19)
    Scott (1996:72-73, my emphasis) contrasts the embedded
    and naturalised “Cartesian myths of the dualities of mind-
    body, culture-nature”, with Cree epistemologies: 
    In Cree, there is no word corresponding to our term
    “nature”.  There is a word pimaatisiiwin (life), which includes
    human as well as animal “persons”.  The word for “person,”
    iiyiyuu, can itself be glossed as “he lives”.  Humans, animals,
    spirits, and several geophysical agents are perceived to have
    qualities of personhood.  All persons engage in a reciprocally
    communicative reality.  Human persons are not set over
    and against a material context of inert nature, but rather
    are one species of person in a network of reciprocating
    persons.
    What assumptions underlie the binary separations?
    • The characteristics of:
       - conscious reason 
       - rationality
       - intent and purpose 
    Belief in reason:
    culture?nature
    human?animal  No doubt, men, plants, animals, the biosphere
    form parts of a single community in the
    ecological sense of the word: each one is
    dependent upon the others for its continual
    existence. But this is not the sense of
    community which generates rights, duties,
    obligations; men and animals are not
    involved in a network of responsibilities or a
    network of mutual concessions. 
    (Passmore 1995:140, my emphasis)
     8
    Assertion and imposition  
    of management concepts
    and practices justified
    Assumption that 
    management  is
    universal  legitimated
    Management assumed   
    to be universal
    Multiple  
    knowledges
    silenced, ignored, 
    devalued and undermined
    Management
    Wildlife in the hall of mirrors 
     
    Wildlife
    Unsettling glimpses
    In beginning to outline what a “non-human-centred
    cosmos” might look like, Rose discusses the land ethic
    expressed by Ngarinman and Ngaliwurru people from
    the Northern Territory in Australia.  In direct contrast to
    Passmore’s assertions, she argues that for Ngarinman
    people:
    … human life exists within the broader context of
    a living and conscious cosmos.  (Rose, 1988:379) 
    Aboriginal people regard the environment as
    sentient and as communicating with them.
    (Williams cited in Langton 1998:27)
    Other animal species are believed to be acting equally responsibly
    [as humans].  People, other animals and other categories of beings
    are moral agents.  The whole cosmos is maintained through the
    conscious and responsible actions of different life forms (Rose
    1988:379).
    Knowledge is also gleaned by understanding the
    messages ‘told’ by different agents within the
    cosmos.  For example, during my times in
    Napranum, I have been told of numerous instances
    of agents within the cosmos sending out messages:
    We know when it’s harvest times when we see grass
    seed burst and the seeds fall off (Mathawanh and
    Buwith, 31.1.94; Kaynayth, 21.2.94);
    When dragon flies are around it’s good fishing,
    especially salmon (Mathawanh and Buwith, 31.1.94);
    When the flower [crab flower, Bu’uk] blooms the mud
    crabs are ready to eat (Unumbree and Buwith, 21.2.94) 
    (cited in Suchet 1994:44).
    Arkapenya of Aurukun with a mud crab. 
    Source: Isaacs, 1987:177
    Many Indigenous people in Canada also internally
    relate to “animals” in mutually conscious and
    reciprocal relationships.  Feit (1988:77) describes
    how the Waswanipi Cree:
    … interpret animal actions as the results of
    wilful choice on the part of the animals. 
    Animals in turn are interpreted as social beings
    capable of interpreting and understanding the
    actions of men.  The Waswanipi hunters say
    that they only catch an animal when the animal
    gives itself to them, or is given them by God
    and the spirits.   9
    For the Ju/’hoansi of Nyae Nyae in north-eastern Namibia
    “elephants must participate in the planning for the harvesting of
    Marula [a tree fruit]” (Powell 1998:47):
    We share the resource with elephants and we have decided
    together, that is the elephants and us, which tree is to be
    used by the Ju/’hoansi and which by the elephant
    (/Ai!ae/Oma cited in Powell 1998:47).
    If certain trees are not left for the elephants, then the elephants
    will destroy all the trees in the area.  When seeing a stand of
    Marula that had been destroyed, /Ai!ae said that in this case he
    had left enough trees and fruit for the elephants and that it must
    have been new elephants who took this revenge:
    These new elephants, he [/Ai!ae] said, had not had any
    dialogue with the people and therefore had not been
    included in the planning of the Marula harvesting.  They
    subsequently became angry when they arrived as there was
    nothing to eat … (Powell 1998:47).
    Destruction of Tsaqn//anbabisi Area by elephants as a form of revenge because
    the Marula resource had been used up in that season. Source: Powell, 1998:47)
    Main Points
    • We need to recognise the assumptions on
    which our knowledge is built
     
    • Engaging with different ways of knowing
    can help us to recognise the hall of mirrors
    and enable us to start transforming it into
    ... 
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