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代寫Comparison of Tensile Properties

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    Practical 1
    Comparison of Tensile Properties
    1.      INTRODUCTION
    For the course RENG 1005 Engineering Materials there are two practicals:
    Practical Number Practical Room
    Practical 1 Comparison of Tensile Properties M1-09
    Practical 2 Effect of Cold Working on Mechanical Properties M1-15
    Read through each practical before your session to determine where it is held and any preparation required and any particular safety precautions.
    Practicals are designed to allow students to experience the variation of properties in materials and the effect of design and processing on properties and hence performance in service.
    All practicals will be assessed for each student. Attendance records for all sessions will be maintained by staff and considered in the assessment of progress in the practical sessions. It is emphasised that attendance at ALL practicals sessions is compulsory. The “report” in this practical book should be completed within two weeks of the actual practical session. References in practical reports must follow a standard format such as:
    Askeland, D.R. and Phule, P. R., "The Science and Engineering of Materials", Fifth Edition, 2006, Thomson.
    All practical reports are to be submitted online via the course learnonline website. The graded reports will be returned approximately 2 weeks after submission.
    Instructions regarding writing a practical report can be found on the university webpage
    or in University library.
    The University of South Australia recognises its obligation to take all reasonable precautions to safeguard the health, safety and welfare of its staff while they are at work. The University of South Australia also believes that students leaving this University must take with them an attitude which accepts good health and safety principles as standard practice. To this end, the following Laboratory Conduct Procedures have been developed and must be adhered to by all who work in laboratories.
    Eating, drinking and the application of cosmetics in laboratories are prohibited.
    Do not store food and/or drink in laboratory refrigerators or laboratory storage units.
    Do not run or indulge in horseplay.
    No smoking in laboratories.
    Do not leave open flames unattended. Open flames must not be used near any flammable solvents.
    Chemical waste and radioactive substances should not be disposed of down sinks, drains or stormwater channels. Departments must provide suitable waste disposal containers and are responsible for removal by an approved waste disposal contractor. Waste containers must be clearly labelled to indicate waste content.
    Keep fire evacuation routes clear at all times.
    Be familiar with FIRE PROCEDURES within the laboratory.
    Be familiar with the use of fire-fighting equipment.
    Approved safety spectacles, goggles or safety shields must be worn in laboratories and all areas where tools or substances such as chemicals, liquids, UV light lasers or radiation may cause eye injury.
    Laboratory coats or gowns tied at the back should be worn. Gloves should be worn at the discretion of the supervisor.
    Wear closed-in footwear at all times. Bare feet, thongs and sandals are prohibited.
    Cover all open wounds when handling chemicals and animals.
    Wash hands after work and before leaving the laboratory.
    Use disinfectants after handling suspected infectious materials.
    Do not pipette by mouth, use mechanical pipetting devices.
    Avoid lifting heavy objects - use trolleys where appropriate. Where lifting is unavoidable, seek assistance (share the load).
    Do not use any machines or laboratory apparatus without prior instruction by the supervisor on safe work procedures and practices.
    Button loose clothing and tie back long hair. When using machinery, remove jewellery, rings etc., should the possibility exist for such items to be caught in moving parts.
    Always wear safety glasses when using chemicals.
    Clearly label all containers in use within the laboratory.
    Always use safety carriers for transporting glass or plastic containers with a capacity of 2 litres or greater.
    Read the appropriate Material Safety Data Sheet before commencing work.
    Regard all substances as hazardous unless there is definite information to the contrary.
    Carry out work in fume cupboards if material is likely to give off toxic or unpleasant odours.
    Do not keep more than 2 litres of flammable liquids in fume cupboards as required by the Australian Standard.
    Keep fume cupboard sashes closed whenever practicable.
    Do not place objects near fume cupboard baffles so that airflow is prevented.
    Do not allow flammable materials to accumulate in the laboratory. Use the correct containers provided to dispose of glass, sharps, metal, paper, infectious waste etc.
    Wash hands frequently and upon completion of work.
    EMERGENCIES/FIRST AID – (building J – Yousef Amer 23006/building M – Angelo Pietrobon, Mark Walford 23227)
    It is the responsibility of all supervisors to ensure that persons working in a laboratory know the location of:-
    (a) designated first aid person
    (b) first aid box
    (c) the nearest fire extinguishers
    (d) emergency shower/eye wash facilities
    (e) isolated devices for gas, water and power (where fitted)
    (f) emergency spill containment equipment and procedures
    (g) emergency personal protective equipment
    (h) fire/emergency evacuation exits.
    Wash skin immediately with plenty of water if contaminated with acids or alkalis.
    Eyes splashed with any chemical must be washed with water and medical advice obtained immediately report the incident to your supervisor and fill in an Accident/Incident Report and Investigation form.
    All breakages and spills must be reported to the supervisor and dealt with immediately. Materials should be cleaned up and a bin provided for broken glass and materials, etc.
    The use of electric open bar radiators or any fan heaters is prohibited.
    Switch off all electrical appliances when equipment is not in use.
    Display a 'LEAVE ON' sign on any equipment required to be left on for an extended period.
    Use Residual Current Devices (RCDs) for all hand held electrical appliances.
    Keep floors tidy and dry.
    Keep benches clean and free from chemicals and apparatus that are not being used.
    Keep aisles free from obstructions.
    Clean working area and equipment thoroughly after use.
    If last to leave the laboratory, make sure equipment is turned off, flames are extinguished etc.
    Keep the interior of fume cupboards and nearby areas clean and clear.
    Observe safety signs at all times.
    All apparatus left running overnight should be shielded and labelled with name and telephone number of person to be contacted, relevant supervisor and the Security Office notified.
    If contractors are working in your area, make known to them any hazards which may exist in your laboratory, i.e., flammable liquids.
    For work with recombinant DNA organisms, refer to the University of South Australia Policies and Procedures relating to these issues. For work with carcinogenic chemicals, refer to the University Biosafety Policy. For work with radioactive substances, refer to the University Radiation Safety Policy.
    In the event that the building needs to be evacuated while a Materials class is in progress, please note that the assembly point for the particular building where the class is being held. For building N this is area outside the main entrance, southern side of building.
    The university aims to foster and preserve the scholarly values of inquiry, experimentation, critical appraisal and integrity, and to foster these values in its students. Academic Integrity is a term used at university to describe honest behaviour as it relates to all academic work (for example papers written by staff, student assignments, conduct in exams, etc.) and is the foundation of university life. One of the main principles is respecting other people's ideas and not claiming them as your own. Anyone found to have used another person's ideas without proper acknowledgement is guilty of Academic Misconduct and the University considers this to be a serious matter.
    The University of South Australia wants its students to display academic integrity so that its degrees are earned honestly and are trusted and valued by its students and their employers. To ensure this happens and that students adhere to high standards of academic integrity and honesty at all times, the University has policies and procedures in place to promote academic integrity and manage academic misconduct for all students. Work submitted electronically by students for assessment will be tested using text comparison software Turnitin.
    More information about Academic Integrity and what constitutes academic misconduct can be found in Section 9 of the Assessment policies and procedures manual at:

    To assist with published data the following references may be useful.
    ·         ASM Handbook, Tenth Edition, Volume 1, Properties and Selection of Irons, Steels and High Performance Alloys (library call number R669 A512
    ·         ASM Handbook, Tenth Edition, Volume 2, Properties and Selection of Non ferrous Alloys and Special Purpose Materials (library call number R669 A512)
    ·         Engineering Properties of Steel ASM (library call number 620.17 E57)
    ·         Engineered Materials Handbook Desk Edition, ASM, (library call number 620.11 E57)
    ·         Metals Handbook Desk Edition, ASM, (library call number 669.A512d.2)
    Engineered materials handbook Desk edition is mostly on polymers, ceramics and composites.
    The ASM Handbooks and desk editions are available on line through the library home page, search on catalogue using ASM Handbook, the URL link is:

    The following web addresses may be of value. The first 2 are databases for all the classes of materials. The matweb site may require a password, which is free of charge for normal membership and obtained online.
    Mat Web,
    Efunda, and then choose either materials or processes.

    The student should read this practical and complete the Table below (Estimation of maximum forces for testing) prior to your practical session.
    ROOM, M1-09, Common Testing – assemble in building foyer
    To investigate the range of tensile properties of various materials and to appreciate the importance of properties in design.
    Various materials will be provided in a suitable form for tensile testing.
    The dimensions of each test piece are to be recorded to allow for the later calculation of the cross sectional area, So, (that is the area over which the force is applied). The original gauge length, Lo, is to be marked on each sample.
    From an estimated tensile strength of each material being tested and the given approximate cross sectional area (see table below), calculate the estimated maximum forces and hence the required force range for testing (HINT Use the formula for stress!)
    Material Estimated tensile
    Approximate cross sectional area
    (mm2) *
    Estimated maximum force required
    polyethylene 20 40  
    polystyrene 35 35  
    polystyrene-butadiene 30 40  
    nylon 66 55 40  
    polypropylene 25 40  
    glass reinforced polypropylene (composite) 60 35  
    annealed copper 110 13  
    cold worked copper 220 13  
    cold worked brass 420 13  
    annealed aluminium 100 13  
    cold worked aluminium 180 13  
    low carbon steel 230 13  
    * approximate only – must not be used in calculation on the following page
    A tensile test is to be performed on each of the four provided samples. For each test, the force coinciding with the elastic limit, the maximum force and the final gauge length, Lf, should be recorded.

    Tabulate the raw data using the table below.
    Material and condition
    (if relevant)
    Original dimensions
    (mm) *
    Force at the limit of proportionality
    Maximum force
    Initial gauge length, Lo
    Final gauge length, Lf
    (*)   specify whether width and thickness or diameter.
    Sketch schematic force/extension curves, on the same graph and axes (i.e. superimpose the graphs for the different materials), of the materials tested to qualitatively evaluate their relative rigidities. Clearly identify each material on the graph. Note variations in the cross sectional area will affect the measured properties and this will NOT be reflected in the force-extension curves.

    Calculate properties using the table below. Report the area to 2 decimal places and the properties as whole numbers.
    Material Original cross sectional area
    Limit of proportionality
    Tensile strength
    % elongation
    From the force extension graphs and the calculated properties on the previous page sketch the expected stress strain curves, on the same axes, for the materials tested.


    From suitable references, enter in the table below published mechanical properties for the materials tested by your practical group. Ensure that you quote all references used.
    Elastic limit
    Tensile strength
    Give full details of references used at the end of the report. References in practical reports must follow a standard format.
    1.         When describing the material sufficient details must be given to fully identify material and its condition. For metals this will include its composition (or standard designation e.g. 1010 steel) and its condition such as level of cold working (e.g. 50% reduction cold worked, or half hard or H04 temper) or heat treated condition (e.g. annealed). ASM Handbook volume 2 (pages 21, 25, 26 and 49 for aluminium alloys and pages 234, 235, 265→ for copper alloys) is a good references for properties of aluminium, copper and copper alloys in different conditions (tempers).
    2.         Elastic limit is being used as an estimate of yield strength (or proof strength) and published data will most often refer to yield (or proof) strength.
    3.         Polymers may only quote either yield or tensile strength.

    Provide any relevant comments on your results. Some points which you may wish to consider:
    ·         Are the results what you expected (do they follow the trends of data in your references?).
    ·         For alloyed metals (e.g. brass, steel if tested) can you suggest the alloy composition and condition by comparison with data in references?
    ·         Compare polymers with respect to their strength, ductility and expected rigidity
    Do NOT focus on inaccuracies or class mistakes.
    From the stress-strain characteristics, as indicated on page 6, rank the relative tensile toughness levels of the materials tested giving your reasons.
    References used in this practical. Give full details of any text books, periodicals, standards, web sites and personal contacts that may have been used. References in practical report must follow a standard format.

      Assessment feedback
    Engineering Materials, RENG 1005
    Practical Report
    Key components of this assignment Comment by marker
    Understanding of question topics:  
    Clarity of answers, were the answers relevant to the question  
    Use of graphs, illustrations and data from literature  
    Use of references  
    Summary comment
    The Graduate qualities being assessed by this assignment are indicated by an X:
    X GQ1: operate effectively with and upon a body of knowledge   GQ5: are committed to ethical action and social responsibility
    X GQ2: are prepared for lifelong learning X GQ6: communicate effectively
    X GQ3: are effective problem solvers   GQ7: demonstrate an international perspective
      GQ4:can work both autonomously and collaboratively    
    Assignment grade/mark


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