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代寫Relational thinking seem overwhelming

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  • 12/03/2013
    3. Processes of abstraction: 
    focus, context and purpose

    – can paralyse thought and action
    Ollman (1993) offers us some very useful
    tools for avoiding paralysis:
    ? Recognition that knowledge is constructed
    ? Processes of the construction: abstraction
    ? Ollman stresses the importance of abstraction in
    shaping our ideas and perceptions of reality:
    “Everyone … begins the task of trying to make sense of his or
    her surroundings by distinguishing certain features and focusing
    on and organizing them in ways deemed appropriate.
    ‘Abstraction’ comes from the Latin abstrahere, which means ‘to
    pull from’. In effect, a piece has been pulled from or taken out of
    the whole and is temporarily perceived as standing apart”
    (Ollman, 1993:24)
    Recognition of abstraction
    We all construct knowledge, it is not the categories that are the
    problem … but forgetting that we are categorising
    Modes of abstraction
     Explicitly and consciously aware of processes of abstraction
    Context (extension): notional boundaries to interaction are
    set in terms of space and time, in terms of history and
    Focus (level of generality): bring into focus a particular
    level of generality for treating not only the part but the whole
    system to which it belongs.
    Position (vantage point/purpose): a place within the
    relationships under examination from which to “view, think
    about, and piece together the other components in the
    relationship”. (Ollman 1993)
    Categorisation 12/03/2013
    Acknowledgement of processes of
    Context (extension): notional boundaries to interaction are set in
    terms of space and time, in terms of history and geography.
    Focus (level of generality): bring into focus a particular level of generality
    for treating not only the part but the whole system to which it belongs.
    Position (vantage point/purpose): a place within the relationships
    under examination from which to “view, think about, and piece together
    the other components in the relationship”. (Ollman 1993) 12/03/2013
    Lecture 6
    13 March, 2012
    Relational thinking and webs of connection in the
    Miriwoong Gajerrong country, the Ord catchment
    Stone Country by Phyllis Ningamara
    • Social-historical context
    • Ord Final Agreement
    • New conservation spaces
    – Co-management
    – Knowing and being known
    – Caring for country
    • Miriwoong and Gajerrong peoples and
    • Making the conceptual links explicit
    Ord Catchment,
    showing Indigenous
    Communities and
    (Andrew Wilson)
    Histories of discovery in frontier country
    Alexander Forrest – ‘I have named this river the Ord,
    after his Excellency  the governor of Western Australia,
    who has taken so great an interest in this
    expedition.’  (Forrest, 1880:27). 
    ‘When Europeans came to explore and settle in the Kimberley  they
    found Aborigines with very different cultural traditions from those in the
    south and in the desert.  Already aware of the outside world, they had
    adopted at least one major technological  innovation  from the Indonesian
    (the canoe) and had gained some experience  in interracial warfare. 
    Although Aborigines had some initial difficulties in identifying Europeans
    as belonging  to the human species, they were quick to learn and adapt
    to the new situations which confronted them.’ (Crawford, 1981).      12/03/2013
    ‘My grandfather in the same way took the
    Djadu back right back to this country.  He
    left it in a big cave over on the hump of a
    hill close to the river bank and it was
    drowned.  It’s finished now, that’s the full
    strength of it.  We only have the singing
    part, that’s all.  The rest is under water.  I
    thought I’d go round there some day with a
    motor car and if the water kept away, went
    back, I’d go to that place and have a look. 
    It’s on this side of the hill on a cliff…
    I wanted to get it out.  I didn’t know they
    were going to put this backwater right up
    to Arglye…I should have shifted that Thing
    myself but I was too late behind.  The
    water was all over then.  No good
    looking…I don’t like to look at it [the
    water].  My private Law is under water
    now’ (Bulla quoted by Shaw, 1986:171).       
    Self-determination in the Ord:
    control and autonomy

    From Miriuwung-
    Gajerrong Cultural
    Planning Framework
    An ontology of connection:            
    welcome to ‘everyone’
    … dense web of connections formed in myth and ceremony among
    places and groups. It is not possible to describe that web of
    connections objectively from a transcendental point of view,
    because each individual and group constituted it in their own
    way, agreeing on some things, differing about others, and
    reshaping it in order to make and create relations or to claim
    resources (Keen, 1994: 131)
    Speaking for country: dawangs and dawawangs
    ‘The Law comes from the country and
    controls the Miriuwung  tribe. The Law
    comes from Ngarranggarni, the Dreaming. 
    Ngarranggarni comes from the country. 
    Ngarranggarni provides the reasons and
    rules, the Law, for how we look after
    country.  The Law is taught by the old
    people to the young people and is passed
    on through generations.  People can’t
    have country unless they have the Law,
    because the Law teaches us about the
    country and how to protect and manage it. 
    When old people say you have to know
    about country, it means you have to have
    Law for that country.’ Ben Ward (2004). 

    /watch?v=Wk3ck1FetL0  12/03/2013
    ‘We used to fish with our mother here at the waterhold on the other side, grown thick with
    pandanus now, we mainly sit on this side, catch bream, catfish, barramundi.  Bower bird’s near
    Our great great grandparents are buried here.  They firstly put them in a tree to dry them out,
    paint them, have a big ceremony, put bones high up in a cave.
    Goorrgorrjing flew up over here in the dreamtime, big hole now with lily roots and a big tree,
    brought the spring.  Snake Dreaming is in Doondoon, continues right down.  Janawen runs
    down the other side into Dunham River.’ Carol Hapke, Yirralalem, 4 June 2007. (MGCPF,
    Photo from
    Gajerrong Cultural
    Language and Conservation planning
    • Meetings should take place in mix of English, language and Kriol
    • Dawang groups – break up in to during part of meetings
    • Have meetings in bush
    Miriuwung-Gajerrong Cultural Planning Framework, 2008:14.
    Screenshot of MG Corp’s ‘Our Role’
    Caring for Country, country caring,
    caring as country
    ‘Features of their traditional economy or the environment are not separated from spiritual
    and cultural heritage. They are all considered  to have derived from the Dreaming; the
    cultural interests of the Dawawang include the flora, fauna, the land and waters of the
    country as well as their intellectual and religious property.
    In this respect, a reference  to Tharram (Bandicoot Bar, site of the Diversion Dam), for
    example, evokes the rocky pool which was formed by women, who, in the Dreamtime,
    tried to trap the Barramundi with rolls of spinifex. The Barramundi leapt to avoid the
    trap and the rolls turned into the rocky bars on which the dam is constructed. It also
    evokes  the red soil and river gums and the wildlife and fauna which were and still are
    present at that place. The reference also contains personal historic references  to events
    which have occurred there, such as births and deaths of those who camped, hunted and
    traveled through the area. Both are historic and cultural elements and are considered
    contemporary in the sense that the mythological meaning and spirituality of the place are
    ever-present.’  (Barber and Rumley, 2003: 17) 12/03/2013
    Caring as country
    Helen Gerrard, head of the Ord Enhancement Scheme and TO, speaking at ‘Satisfaction Day’:
    We are very happy to have got this far. We have had our disagreements but
    we have managed to work through them and now we are all getting on
    with the job. We have learned a lot through the process. It has been very
    good for our capacity building and our confidence building
    We have surrendered our Native Title and that has been very hard for us;
    that is our major contribution to the Agreement. We now need to have the
    ongoing commitment from the State to ensure that all parties implement
    the letter and the spirit of the Agreement, and especially to make us a true
    partner in the development of the region. We include the private sector
    developers in this partnership (quoted in McLean, 2012:346)
    (MGCPF, 2008:14)
    Barber, K and Rumley, H. 2003.  ‘Gunanurang: (Kununurra) big river Aboriginal cultural
    values of the Ord River and wetlands: a study and report prepared  for the Water and Rivers
    Commission’, Water and Rivers Commission, Perth,  accessed 4th January 2013 from: 
    Hill, R., Miriuwung and Gajerrong peoples, Hill, D. and Goodson, S (2008). ‘Miriuwung-Gajerrong
    Cultural Planning Framework.’ Accessed 3rd January 2013 from: 

    Keen, I. (1994). Knowledge and Secrecy in an Aboriginal Religion. Melbourne: Oxford University
    McLean, J (2012).  ‘From Dispossession to Compensation: a political ecology
    of the Ord Final Agreement as a partial success story for Indigenous traditional owners’, Australian
    Geographer, 43:4, 339-355.
    Ollman, B. (1976) Dialectical  Investigations. Routledge, New York.
    Rose, D. B. (1996). Nourishing  terrains: Australian Aboriginal views of landscape and wilderness.
    Canberra: Australian Heritage Commission.


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